Feedstock Alpha-olefin monomers derived from crude oil or natural gas.
Catalysts Catalysts influence the physical properties and characteristics of the polyolefin produced as well as the economics of the process. Typical catalysts are chromium oxide (Phillips type), titanium halides & organoaluminum compounds (Ziegler-Natta), and metallocene.
Additives Additives are incorporated in the process to achieve specific properties and overcome inherent weaknesses. Depending on the end-product desired, the number of additives and their concentration vary significantly from one resin grade to another.
The most common additives are:
Stabilization agents to prevent thermal degradation and discoloration
Antioxidants to prevent oxidation during and after processing
Calcium & zinc stearates to neutralize catalyst residues and impart lubricity
Slip additives to reduce friction in flexible packaging films
Antiblock agents such as silica, talc and kaolin to create air gaps between two film surfaces so they can be pulled apart
Processing aids to help improve the surface appearance of the end product produced
UV stabilizers to help protect the polymer during long term outdoor exposure
Pigments such as titanium dioxide and carbon black